An overview about the degree course
Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application.
The term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning “cleverness” and ingeniare, meaning “to contrive, devise”
The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property .
TYPES OF ENGINEERING BRANCHES IN INDIA
A Mechanical Engineering Degree involves the design of mechanical systems. Mechanical engineering is an engineering branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.
The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity .A primary focus is on thermodynamics, structural analysis, materials science, and kinematics.
In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery. The Mechanical Engineering Degree has a number of subsets that intermix with electronics and electrical engineering, such as Mechatronics.
Computer Science Engineering
Computer Engineering combines the fields of electrical engineering and computer science to create new computer hardware and software. They’re involved in the design of computer architecture and function across roles as software and hardware engineers. This field deals not necessarily with the virtual world we see but the physical components of computers systems.
Computer science graduates may find themselves in Telecommunications, Networking, Software Application Development, or Manufacturing, and additional industries are emerging, such as Application Development, Web Development, Network Security / Cyber security, and Cloud Computing, among others.
Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electrical power generation, distribution and use.
Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of fields, including computer engineering, systems engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, electronics, and optics and photonics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering, power electronics, electromagnetic and waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electrochemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, and electrical materials science
An Electrical Engineering Degree involves the study of energy. Energy is available in various forms such as electrical, hydro and natural sources such as wind and solar energy. An Electrical Engineer develops technologies to assist with the practical application of such energies. Electrical Engineers design components for electronic equipment, communications systems, power grids, automobiles, and more. Most employers require an Electrical Engineering Degree at some level to work as an Electrical Engineer, and other licensing or certification requirements may also be required depending on where you live.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors and diodes) to design electronic circuits, devices, integrated circuits and their systems. The discipline typically also designs passive electrical components, usually based on printed circuit boards.
Electronics is a subfield within the wider electrical engineering academic subject but denotes a broad engineering field that covers subfields such as analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.
Technology and specifically, electronics, have changed the way most of the world lives every day. From the revolutionary computer to the latest mobile phone technology that fits in your pocket, we all use electronics every single day. Electronics engineers are needed to design and build electronic equipment. Most electronics engineers work with circuits, switchboards, and other electronic configurations to design and build these devices.
Civil Engineering involves the development of infrastructure such as buildings, railways, roads construction, bridges and general construction project management. Civil Engineers also play an important role in rebuilding projects, such as in the event of a natural disaster. Civil Engineers may work in the private or public sector at any level.
Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. It is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering can take place in the public sector from municipal public works departments through to federal government agencies, and in the private sector from locally based firms to global Fortune 500 companies. This is a very broad engineering degree. Environmental Engineering, Structural Engineering and Marine Engineering are all specialties of Civil Engineering.
As the name implies, Chemical Engineering is the practical application of chemistry. Chemical engineering is a certain type of engineering which deals with the study of operation and design of chemical plants as well as methods of improving production. Chemical engineers develop economical commercial processes to convert raw material into useful products. Chemical engineering uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, and economics to efficiently use, produce, design, transport and transforms energy and materials.
This type of engineering degree involves technology that utilizes chemical reactions to solve problems. The work of chemical engineers can range from the utilization of nanotechnology and nonmaterial’s in the laboratory to large-scale industrial processes that convert chemicals, raw materials, living cells, microorganisms, and energy into useful forms and products. Chemical engineers are involved in many aspects of plant design and operation, including safety and hazard assessments, process design and analysis, modeling, control engineering, chemical reaction engineering, nuclear engineering, biological engineering, construction specification, and operating instructions.
An Aerospace Engineering Degree involves the study of air and space travel. Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautically (aerospace) engineering. This might include military aircraft design and development, along with commercial airline design and satellite technology.
The terms Aerospace and Aeronautical are both often used interchangeably, yet there are key differences between the two. Aeronautical Engineering relates to craft that remain in our atmosphere, while Aerospace Engineering refers to aircraft that venture outside our atmosphere. Most programs in the United States have changed their names from Aeronautical to Aerospace over the past couple decades, but there are still some programs that go by the historical name.
Automobile Engineering is the branch of engineering which deals with designing, manufacturing, mechanical mechanisms as well operations of automobiles. It is also an introduction to vehicle engineering which includes cars, motorcycles, trucks and buses etc. The automobile industry is hugely diverse and requires engineers to work in areas such as mechanical design, performance, manufacturing, electrical engineering and systems management.
Bio Mechanical Engineering
Biomechanical Engineering is the study of organisms and mechanics and how the two solve problems in combination. This is a growing industry and practical applications include environmental challenges such as waste control and keeping our waterways free from pollution. Biomechanics, specifically, is the study of biological systems such as the human body, combined with the study of mechanics, or mechanical applications. Using the skills learned from biology, engineering, and physics to research and development for health care, such as organs that have been made from artificial materials, or new advances with prosthetic limbs.
The creation of biomaterial, which is a fake material that can be integrated into living tissue or can live in sync with biological material, is one of the biggest advances in medicine to this day. Those in this field might also hold the job of not only installing, but also adjusting, maintaining, repairing, and providing technical help for all the biomaterial. The combination of knowledge from mechanical engineering and biology is used to potentially improve quality of life for an organism.
Bio Medical Engineering
Biomedical engineering (BME) or medical engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g., diagnostic or therapeutic). BME is also traditionally known as “bioengineering”, but this term has come to also refer to biological engineering. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine, combining the design and problem-solving skills of engineering with medical biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy. Also included under the scope of a biomedical engineer is the management of current medical equipment in hospitals while adhering to relevant industry standards.
Biomedical Engineers apply their design skills to biological and medical sciences. They do this to assist in advancements in healthcare treatment technology. They develop and maintain diagnostic devices. Devices that include EEGs, MRIs, and other imaging machines. Physicians use these machines to diagnosis their patients’ medical problems. This is a fast moving industry and while challenging can be a rewarding career path to take. This involves making equipment recommendations, procurement, routine testing, and preventive maintenance, a role also known as a Biomedical Equipment Technician (BMET) or as clinical engineering.
Agricultural Engineering is the area of engineering concerned with the design, construction and improvement of farming equipment and machinery. Agricultural engineers integrate technology with farming. An Agricultural engineering degree involves learning how to apply engineering to the agricultural industry to assist with area of farming including: soil conservation and salinity, ground preparation, irrigation, farm machinery design and production and helping develop more effective harvest techniques.
They design and build agricultural infrastructure such as dams, water reservoirs, warehouses, and other structures. They may also help engineer solutions for pollution control at large farms. Some agricultural engineers are developing new forms of biofuels from non-food resources like algae and agricultural waste. Such fuels could economically and sustainably replace gasoline without jeopardizing the food supply.
Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. This is done either by the action of heat, or at lower temperatures using precipitation reactions from high-purity chemical solutions. The term includes the purification of raw materials, the study and production of the chemical compounds concerned, their formation into components and the study of their structure, composition and properties.
Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, with long-range order on atomic scale. Glass ceramics may have an amorphous or glassy structure, with limited or short-range atomic order. They are either formed from a molten mass that solidifies on cooling, formed and matured by the action of heat, or chemically synthesized at low temperatures using, for example, hydrothermal or sol-gel synthesis.
One of the most popular kinds of engineering degree. Environmental Engineering involves the study of science and engineering to improve our environment. This includes the air we breathe, food we consume, and water. Environmental engineers devise solutions for wastewater management, water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health. They design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems, and design plans to prevent waterborne diseases and improve sanitation in urban, rural and recreational areas. They evaluate hazardous-waste management systems to evaluate the severity of such hazards, advise on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. They implement environmental engineering law, as in assessing the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.
Industrial engineers work for manufacturing companies or as consultants to the manufacturing industry. The role of an Industrial engineer is to increase productivity and reduce waste and spending. Industrial engineers use specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results obtained from systems and processes. From these results, they are able to create new systems, processes or situations for the useful coordination of labor, materials and machines and also improve the quality and productivity of systems, physical or social. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, supply chain engineering, management science, management engineering
Material Science Engineering
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids. Materials engineering focuses on the synthesis of materials in useful quantities, and on the processing of component materials into engineering products.
Materials engineering draws heavily on the fundamental knowledge gained from materials science, and adapts the processes involved for the scale and requirements of the application. There is a rich interplay between the science and engineering aspects. Basic studies frequently find ways to improve the properties of materials, and goal-oriented engineering often reveals aspects of performance that challenge the basic understanding.
Mechatronics, which is also called mechatronics engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of electronic, electrical and mechanical engineering systems, and also includes a combination of robotics, electronics, computer, telecommunications, systems, control, and product engineering. As technology advances over time, various subfields of engineering have succeeded in both adapting and multiplying. The intention of mechatronics is to produce a design solution that unifies each of these various subfields. Originally, the field of mechatronics was intended to be nothing more than a combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the name being a portmanteau of mechanics and electronics; however, as the complexity of technical systems continued to evolve, the definition had been broadened to include more technical areas.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds and their mixtures called alloys. Metal plays a vital role in almost every aspect of modern life. It also encompasses the study of exotic material, pure and combined which has application in various industries. It is one of the most important branches of engineering as modern applications nowadays require material with high strength and low weight along with other factors.
Metallurgical Engineers extract, refine and recycle metals. They solve problems such as reducing corrosion, maintaining heat levels and increasing the strength of the product. They help develop or improve metals that are used in healthcare, transportation, defense and entertainment industry. The work of a metallurgical engineer impacts other engineering fields. They develop core materials that can enhance the function of many products and systems.
The three main branches of Metallurgical Engineering Course are physical metallurgy, extractive metallurgy and mineral processing. Physical metallurgy deals with problem solving i.e. development of metallic alloys needed for different types of manufacturing and construction. Extractive metallurgy involves extracting metal from ore. Mineral processing involves gathering mineral products from the earth’s crust.
Mining in the engineering discipline is the extraction of minerals from underneath, above or on the ground. Mining engineering is associated with many other disciplines, such as mineral processing, exploration, excavation, geology, and metallurgy, geotechnical engineering and surveying. A mining engineer may manage any phase of mining operations, from exploration and discovery of the mineral resources, through feasibility study, mine design, development of plans, production and operations to mine closure.
Mining engineers must therefore be concerned not only with the production and processing of mineral commodities, but also with the mitigation of damage to the environment both during and after mining as a result of the change in the mining area. Such Industries go through stringent laws to control the pollution and damage caused to the environment and are periodically governed by the concerned departments.
Nano essentially refers to a billionth e.g. one nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter or between 2 and 20 atoms in length. Nanotechnology is the study of extremely small elements such as molecules and single atoms and the production of extremely small devices.
Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, engineering, micro fabrication, and molecular engineering. The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.
Nanotechnology is expected to be as important to us as the industrial revolution over time as it has the potential to help solve some of the world’s major problems including health and environmental concerns. Nanotechnology is a very specialized discipline that can be applied to a very broad range of industries and fields
Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of Hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Exploration and production are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry. Exploration, by earth scientists, and petroleum engineering are the oil and gas industry’s two main subsurface disciplines, which focus on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs.
Petroleum Engineering is one of the highest paid engineering positions available. Petroleum engineers play a significant role in locating reservoirs beneath the earth’s surface for gas and oil companies.
Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power, and the electrical apparatus connected to such systems Although much of the field is concerned with the problems of three-phase AC power – the standard for large-scale power transmission and distribution across the modern world – a significant fraction of the field is concerned with the conversion between AC and DC power and the development of specialized power systems such as those used in aircraft or for electric railway networks. Power engineering draws the majority of its theoretical base from electrical engineering.
A robotics engineering degree has a primary focus on automation and the use of machines to assist with repetitive tasks such as those found in manufacturing. Robotics engineers will typically design robotic technology and develop maintenance systems to help achieve optimal efficiency. this is an area with expected growth of up to 15% in the next five years
Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the ‘bones and muscles’ that create the form and shape of man-made structures. Structural engineers also must understand and calculate the stability, strength, rigidity and earthquake-susceptibility of built structures for buildings and non-building structures. The structural designs are integrated with those of other designers such as architects and building services engineer and often supervise the construction of projects by contractors on site. They can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, and vehicles where structural integrity affects functioning and safety.
Structural engineering design uses a number of relatively simple structural concepts to build complex structural systems. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual outcome of such efforts, an engineered system, can be defined as a combination of components that work in synergy to collectively perform a useful function.
While it has evolved over time as systems have evolved with technology and greater efficiency it’s primary focus is on developing and improving upon existing systems. Systems engineers develop systems for workplace efficiency, risk management, measuring and refinement.
Textile engineering (TE) or textile technology deals with the application of scientific and engineering principles to the design and control of all aspects of fiber, textile, and apparel processes, products, and machinery. These include natural and man-made materials, interaction of materials with machines, safety and health, energy conservation, and waste and pollution control. Textile engineers are given training and experience in plant design and layout, machine and wet process design and improvement, and designing and creating textile products.
A textile engineer therefore works with textile materials: fibers, yarns, fabrics, and finishes. Most textile engineer’s work on product research and development, either improving current textile based products or creating new products. They may also be involved with finding uses for new fibers, yarns, fabrics, or textile finishes.